Round-Table Discussions 2017-08-11T13:06:42+00:00

Round-Table Discussions

RT 1 Title: Air pollution: the actual environmental health crisis we face

Participant: Dr. Hebe Carreras – Universidade de Cordoba, Argentina
Participant: Dr. Paulo Saldiva – Universiadade de São Paulo – USP
Participant: Dra. Deborah Tasat – Universidade San Martín, Argentina

Description: We may not always see it, but air pollution is the cause of some of our most common illnesses. The last report of the World Health Organization (WHO) confirms that 92% of the world’s population lives in places where air quality levels do not meet WHO standards. As result, a significant deterioration of human health has been observed, particularly in urban areas. In fact, in 2012, an estimated 6.5 million deaths (11.6% of all global deaths) were associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution together. Still more worrying  is that almost 90% of the air pollution-related deaths occur in low and middle-income countries and in poor neighbourhoods of high-income cities. Therefore, reduction in air pollutants can have particularly large health benefits for lower income groups as well as for susceptible populations such as children, elderly, individual with previous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and pregnant women among others.
The main sources of air pollution in urban environments comprise vehicle emissions, biomass and waste burning, power plants and industrial activities. However, human activity is not the only source of air pollution. Pollution from natural sources like forest fires, volcanic eruption and sandstorms can also influence air quality.
Urgent measures to tackle air pollution are needed. The purpose of this session is to understand how exposure to air pollutants (particles and gases) affect different biological processes (inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular dysfunction, infections, etc.) and up to what extent these effects are directly associated to air pollutant composition and physicochemical characteristics. Thus, the results of the present proposal will provide scientific evidence for national and regional governments to build environmental policies to further prevent, protect and intensify the surveillance on air pollution. In addition, this session could help raise awareness on air pollution as an important risk factor to health and climate.

RT 2 Title: Molecular biomarkers in environmental toxicology

Participant: Dr. Afonso Bainy – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – UFSC
Participant: Dra.  Nancy Denslow – University of Florida, USA
Participant: Dr. Igor Dias Medeiros – Univeridade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP
Participant: Dr. João Carlos Setubal -Universidade de São Paulo – USP

Description: Molecular biomarkers and omics technologies are improving environmental analysis and helping to elucidate molecular effects and mechanisms of xenobiotic biotransformation in model and non-model organisms. Besides methodological implications in the molecular protocols, an overview of computational methods for the analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data from Next Generation Sequencing will be addressed. The aim will be to show how important are good molecular and bioinformatics practices so that satisfactory results can be obtained with respect to the biological goals of such research projects

RT 3 Title: Latin America ecotoxicology effluents regulation: status, equalization and progressive goals

Participant: Dr. Ricardo O. Barra – Universidad de Concepción – Chile
Participant: Dr. Fernando Aquinoga – APLYSIA soluções ambientais
Participant: Dr. Alexandre Arenzon – Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS
Participant: Dra. Helena de Assis – Universidade Federal do Paraná – UFPR

Description: In LA, only Brazil has federal environmental legislation that includes the assessment of acute and chronic toxicity potential of effluent discharges to watersheds (CONAMA 2011). However, just monitoring the effluent quality is not sufficient for protecting the biota of the natural aquatic ecosystem and maintaining the ecosystem services; continuously improvement targets to reduce the potential for toxic releases should be implemented. In Brazil, only the Rio Grande do Sul State legislation (CONSEMA 2006) includes progressive targets for reducing the toxicity of industrial and domestic effluents, but unfortunately, after ten years in force, this law was revoked. Efforts should be made to learn from these and other examples and expand the effluent control based on ecotoxicological tools to other parts of LA

RT 4 Title: Contaminantes de preocupação emergente para América Latina: Ocorrência, efeitos e riscos em ecossistemas aquáticos

Participant: Dr. Bruno Nunes – Universidade de Aveiro – Portugal
Participant: Dr. Camilo D. Seabra Pereira – Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP
Participant: Dr. Ítalo Braga Castro – Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP

Description: A introdução de novas substâncias no mercado leva invariavelmente a seu despejo no ambiente. Portanto avaliações do potencial ecotoxicológico desses compostos, empregando múltiplas ferramentas analíticas que salvaguardam os ecossistemas dos seus efeitos deletérios são fundamentais. No entanto, fármacos e biocidas usados em tintas anti-incrustantes não foram sujeitas a estes processos sistemáticos de avaliação de risco ambiental. Essas classes de compostos foram apenas recentemente investigadas no continente Latino Americano, tendo revelado ocorrência e atividade tóxica considerável. Adicionalmente, à luz do alto consumo de cocaína e subprodutos nas regiões costeiras metropolitanas e sua consequente detecção em águas marinhas e estuarinas ao redor do mundo, alertam para inclusão dessas moléculas no grupo de contaminantes de preocupação emergente. Além disso, efeitos biológicos adversos decorrentes da exposição a essas drogas ilícitas em organismos marinhos também foram evidenciados por estudo recentes. Nesse contexto, a mesa-redonda tem como objetivo apresentar e debater conhecimento recente sobre a ocorrência e o risco ambiental de três classes de contaminantes emergentes em regiões costeiras da América Latina apresentando estudos de caso para o fármaco paracetamol, a droga ilícita Crack e biocidas anti-incrustantes de terceira geração.

RT 5 Title: Global Horizon Scanning Project – Priority Research Questions for Latin America

Participant: Dr. Pedro Carriquiriborde – Universidad Nacional de la Plata – CONICET
Participant: Dr. Julie Brodeur – Instituto de Recursos Biológicos, Argentina
Participant: Dra. Tatiana Heid Furley – APLYSIA Soluções Ambientais
Participant: Karina S.B. Miglioranza – IMyC, CONICET- UNMDP, Argentina
Participant: Dra. Helena Assis – Universidade Federal do Paraná

Description: SETAC Latin America (LA) is one of the five Geographic Units of SETAC, a global professional organisation with the mission of achieving Environmental Quality Through Science® and ensuring a balanced participation from government, business and academia. The unique tri-partite forum which SETAC provides, facilitates a multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach to the identification and resolution of environmental quality problems.  The Global Horizon Scanning (GSH) Project was established to identify and prioritize the most critical environmental research needs.  One hundred research questions were submitted by SETAC LA members and the 20 priority research questions were selected in the LA GSH Workshop held during the 11th SLA Biennial Meeting which took place in Buenos Aires in 2015.
The aims of the current Round Table, are: i) to present the results of the 2015 GSH Workshop, ii) to evaluate the whole exercise and identify strength and weakness of the process, iii) to have feedback from stakeholders on SETAC’s identified priority research areas for LA, as well as to discuss how the selected questions could help decision-makers design environmental strategic plans.

RT 6 Title: Coastal Governance and Sustainable Urban Planning

Participant: Dra. Alessandra Aloise de Seabra – Universidade Santa Cecília
Participant: Dr. Marcus Polette – Universidade Vale do Itajaí
Participant: Dr.  Mohamed Ezz El-Din Mostafa Habib – Universidade de Campinas/Universidade Santa Cecília

Description: Economic and territorial models of development throughout the twentieth century were not very respectful with the environment, substantially modifying the natural, rural and urban areas. With more than half of the world’s population living in cities and predicting that number doubles by 2050, we live in the Urban Age, where economic activities, social and cultural interactions, as well as environmental and humanitarian impacts are concentrated in the cities, which represents significant sustainability challenges in housing, infrastructure, health, education, jobs, natural resources, etc. It is in the cities that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development finds an ideal position to transform the broad and abstract Agenda into something concrete and efficient. Cities can approach objectives and goals in a practical way, adapting them to their specific contexts and helping their citizens to understand how actions contribute to their fulfilment. Well planned cities can be sources of solutions to the current global problems. The New Urban Agenda presents a paradigm shift based on city science, establishing norms and principles for urban planning, construction, development, management and improvement in five main pillars of application: national urban policies, urban legislation, urban planning, local economy, and municipal finance. In this new scenario, the city can be a powerful instrument to achieve sustainable development.